reading different sources makes you challenge your bias on an issue and forces you to be flexible to change. you are able to get some really good thoughts when reading something where the author has a bias where you don’t. you have to be able look at things from the viewpoint of others in order to get really good information.

in order to see a writers frame we use different things. authors use personal experiences in order to relate to the readers or have short bios so that the readers are able to get a glimpse of the mind set of the person or what the piece is  mostly focus on.

Thoughts on Money

We use money all time without ever really thinking about it but how exactly did money come about? We learn that people use to barter or trade an item for another so why are we currently not using that system? I want to know the reason for the change from bartering to actually using coins and paper. Money does not look the same in different countries, why is that? Is the way money looks determine by the countries culture? Did culture have a role in the development of money? It seems to me that I ask one question and get three in return which I’m fine with but it is just so hard to find information on these questions which makes me wonder if anyone has really thought about it before. Phrase: “Friend is our fortune indeed” why would you use this phrase with money? It doesn’t seem to make sense as fortune is always changing. Statement: “Featuring the comparatively unified size, weight and value, the bronze shell-shaped coin entered the circulation smoothly.” This may be true but from what I read about the first Chinese money, it was in many shapes like shells, knifes, and spades so how exactly could it have entered smoothly when there were all these different shapes? “northerners in China found it was hard to find enough shells from the south, so they used other materials like pottery, stone, bone, jade, bronze and gold to make shell-shaped money.” So why would they decide to use all of these other materials and is this similar to what other cultures did? I think it might have been easier for them to use a common rock but I guess they wanted to go the hard way\ Phrase: “To pay through the nose” comes from Danes in Ireland, who slit the noses of those who were remiss in paying the Danish poll tax. So this seems really harsh to me but if the Danes did it then other cultures could have also which makes me wonder why I don’t see any of this Statement: “Outside of China, the first coins developed out of lumps of silver. They soon took the familiar round form of today, and were stamped with various gods and emperors to mark their authenticity” I don’t think people went from shells to silver there had to be something in between but I can’t find anything on it This site gives a really good timeline for the development of money but it doesn’t explain why the switch from bartering to coins occurred. Phrase: “Money, in and of itself, is nothing” I like this phrase but if money was really nothing then it would not have been created in the first place. Statement: “These traded goods served as the medium of exchange even though the unit values were still negotiable. This system of barter and trade spread across the world, and it still survives today on some parts of the globe.” The terms were not always negotiable I’m sure but even if this system survived it would be very hard for it to work when there are tons of coins and paper money out there. “The Chinese moved from using actual tools and weapons as a medium of exchange to using miniature replicas of the same tools cast in bronze. Nobody wants to reach into their pocket and impale their hand on a sharp arrow so, over time, these tiny daggers, spades and hoes were abandoned for the less prickly shape of a circle, which became some of the first coins.” So my question is why? If you didn’t want to carry an axe around before why would you want to carry one that is made in metal? It doesn’t really make sense to me. Phrase: “As soon as man discovered metal, it was used to made utensils and weapons previously made of stone” I think metal was discovered long before it was used to make coins so how did people realize that metal could be used to make money Statement: “This elementary form of trade prevailed at the beginning of civilization, and may be found today among people of primitive economies, in regions where difficult access makes money scarce and, even in special situations, where people barter items without regard for their equivalence in value.” I think people that have primitive economies belong to countries that are ruled by another country. I also think there is some regard to the value of the items being trade or it wouldn’t be fair to everyone and the system would no longer work. This site has a lot of good details but talks way too much about certain things that I think are unimportant and doesn’t really talk enough about what I think is important. Phrase: “Money (which everybody wants) provides an intermediary substance, enabling the seller to choose when and where he wishes to become a buyer.” Money does let you choose when you want to buy an item and when you should sell it but I don’t know how much historical content it has Statement: “Wealth compressed into the convenient form of gold brings one disadvantage. Unless well hidden or protected, it is easily stolen.” Money can be stolen from anyone and not everyone hides it. Those with the most wealth are normally targeted first and always tend to item their money in the same area: a safe. Once the safe is found, there goes all of the money but those will less money are cleverer with hiding it so it is not found.   “By one of the strange coincidences of history, the idea of coinage occurs at the same period in two far separated parts of the world. While the craftsmen of Ephesus are striking coins in Asia Minor, the skilled casters of China are making coins by a different method – pouring molten bronze into molds.” Now how did both of the people discover the way to make coins? Again the more I dive into my questions, the more questions I get back.

When finding these sources I noticed that I wasn’t getting much on countries other then China really so that could be a problem for me since I can’t just relay on information about money from China. And iot is very hard to find anything that has the history of money and the development of it.

Why Currency?

For my groups’ inquiry project, we are dealing with the question how does currency relate to humanity? I decided to take the more historic approach to the question. The two question that immediately were how did currency develop in cultures? And how did bartering turn into currency? In doing my research I was only able to find why china switched from using cattle to using shells and coins: The northern people in China found it was hard to find enough shells from the south, so they started using other materials like pottery, stone, bone, jade, bronze and gold to make shell-shaped coins. The bronze shell-shaped coins heralded the start of the Chinese coin.
Although I was not successful at finding information for my first question, I was able to find a good amount of information for my second question. Civilizations used animals and resources to barter in the beginning. The most primitive form of money found is shells. Known in Africa as cowries and wampum in America. These small shells, deriving from the Maldives Islands in the Indian Ocean, were a treasured item in the civilizations of China and India from very early times. From India these attractive objects were carried along the trade routes to Africa. Similarly the American Indians use a small white cylindrical shell for ceremonial gifts, embroidered on to decorated belts or other ornaments.
The earliest known currency to be used in commercial transactions appeared in Egypt and Mesopotamia by the third millennium BC. The currency used were gold bars which had to be weighed to establish their value each time they are exchanged. Later on, the gold bars were supplemented by gold rings for smaller sums. Egypt and Mesopotamia gold was deposited in temples for safe-keeping as temples were known for being safe places. In Babylon at the time of Hammurabi, in the 18th century BC, there are records of loans made by the priests of the temple. This is the first documentation of banking. The earliest known coins in the western world came from the city of Ephesus in Ionia (in western Turkey) around 650 BC. The metal used in the coins is electrum which is a natural alloy of gold and silver found locally in the area. The coins were bean shaped and had a distinguishing mark on one side such as the image of a lion. Shi Huangdi, the first emperor of China, introduces the more well-known round coin in the late 3rd century BC. Cast in bronze rather than struck, they have a square hole in the middle which would become a characteristic of far eastern coins for the next two millennia. China developed paper currency and soon it was being used everywhere.


Discourse writing communities are normally based on our preconceived notions of what writing is and how we are suppose to write but once we get to universities we find that there are many discourse communities that are not part of high school discourse communities. In high school there is a set way that you are told is the correct way to write a paper but there is no set way for writing a paper in the university.

Is there a discourse writing community?

Right at the beginning of “The idea of community in the study or writing” Harris makes a point of that during his time at the university, he was part of many discourse communities but was never a full member of one. If we think about this, we can see that it also applies to us as students. We are part of many discourse communities but we do not spend all of our time in one thus making us a member but not a full member. Writing being a discourse community is true and meets the requirements for being one but it is also not a discourse community at the same time. If you are writing a paper for your English class then you are part of the discourse community doing the exact same thing but if you are writing poetry you are not since no two poems are alike and poetry is full of feelings.


“The troubles of many student writers, Bartholomae suggests, begin with their inability to imagine such a position of privilege, to define their views against some “common” way of talking about their subject. Instead, they simply repeat in their writing “what everybody knows” or what their professor has told them in her lectures. The result, of course, is that they are penalized for “having nothing really to say.”” I think that what Bartholomae is saying has truth to it. When writing a paper you would following the guidelines thus making you put what your teacher has talked about in your paper. This doesn’t mean there isn’t new information in the paper but it is just reiterating what everyone knows already. This is the main discourse writing community and what we need to do to become better writers is to find a way out of that discourse community and into another one that better fits our needs as writers.


I think that they are agreeing with Swales description of discourse communities to some degree. “There has been much debate in recent years over whether we need, above all, to respect our students’ “right to their own language,” or to teach them the ways and forms of “academic discourse.” Both sides of this argument, in the end, rest their cases on the same suspect generalization: that we and our students belong to different and fairly distinct communities of discourse, that we have “our” “academic” discourse and they have “their own” “common” (?I) ones. The choice is one between opposing fictions. The “languages” that our students bring to us cannot but have been shaped, at least in part, by their experiences in school, and thus must, in some ways, already be “academic.” Similarly, our teaching will and should always be affected by a host of beliefs and values that we hold regardless of our roles as academics. What we see in the classroom, then, are not two coherent and competing discourses but many overlapping and conflicting ones.” As we see from what Harris is saying, there are many overlapping and conflicting discourse communities a student can relate to. Language is an important part of a discourse community but if everyone’s language is different than is there a discourse community for each language or is there one big community? And if you really think about it, are there really many discourse communities or is there just one discourse community with many specialized sections in it? For all discourse communities relate to each other somehow.

Discourse communities

When we hear the word genre we think of books and music but discourse communities use genre also. The way they use genre depends of the type of community it is and discourse communities have their own language. Each discourse community will use certain words in a way that applies to that group only. This use of language is a type of social behavior. Since each communities has their own way of speaking and writing, you could be considered literate in one community and not literate at all in another community. Since there is no set standard for discourse communities, the term literate can not be easily applied here.


Discourse communities I belong to

The first discourse community I belong to the chemistry department. Everyone has a common goal in chemistry: to make things react. we like mixing chemicals and seeing what happens. Mass emails are sent to us from the chemistry department and there are study groups that sent out their own emails and texts to those that are in that group. Chemistry is mostly experiments which we all get feedback on from instructors and friends as to what we did wrong and what we did right. Chemistry like most sciences is a broad term. There are many different types of chemistry such as basic chemistry, organic chemistry, and inorganic chemistry. If you have ever talked to some one about chemistry, you are going to hear a lot of complex terms and a few equations. Chemistry is very detailed and the wrong word can mean a totally different thing. All of my instructors love chemistry with a passion, you can hear it in their voice otherwise it would be very hard to teach. Chemistry is used for finding out how chemicals work together and why reactions happen.

The second discourse community I belong to is the math department. The goal in math is simple, solve the equation but how you get the answer depend on the type of math you use. There are many different types of math which use different equations to solve problems. Mass emails is the most effective way of communication for the department. You take a lot of tests in math and have a ton of homework but that is the way you get feedback from people. The people that teach math love it since it is a tough subject to teach. Math has a lot of equations and vocabulary terms that you will hear if you talk to some one that really loves math. Math is used to provide facts and answers to you

Both of these communities share similar traits. The same type of communication is used, both have a lot of terms and equations used, and it is something that you have to be passionate about. Chemistry and math use the same amount of writing but you are not writing papers really unless you have to write a lab report in chemistry. You write a lot of equations. Numbers are everywhere in both of these communities. Both of these communities needs the other and they also influence each other.

Why are we obsessed with anime?

Societies engage in cultural exchanges in a variety of ways. Cuisine, dress, architecture, even elements of language find themselves transferred from one people to another. The result is imported cultural elements intermingle with native ones creating new and interesting trends. An example of these intermingling cultures is anime. Anime is the Japanese form of western cartoons which the Japanese modified to fit their interests and art style. TV shows that we grew up with such as Pokémon, Naruto, and Yu-Gi-Oh are forms of anime. Which brings about the question: How has anime, a foreign style of art, animation, and storytelling, established such a large fan base of adolescents in western countries?

I myself am an anime fan and spend a large portion of my free time watching it. There are many different categories of anime and it is hard to pick a favorite category or show since no two anime shows are alike. Anime has many different aspects to it from character details like hair color or clothing to plotlines to anime conventions, there is no one thing that describes anime. Of all of the people that are a fan of anime, everyone will like something different about it but will insist that whatever thing they love the most about anime is the best. There is always some aspect of fantasy present in the shows wither it is a future world or magical girls.

But what are the categories in anime? why is there so much fantasy involved? , and why is anime music so epic? These are just a few of the question that come to my mind when I think about it.

Literacy in the 21st century


Since technology is an aspect in everyday life today it is important that everyone is able to use technology and understand other cultures. To us using technology is second nature but for our parents and grandparents they are still learning how to use it. Today many cultures are intertwined with each other and it has become necessary for us to understand them. For example when you call the company you bought your laptop from for help, you get connected to a help center in India. You have to be able to understand what that person is telling you and that person has to speak a language that is not native to them.

Social media has become a huge influence on people today. Anything that is put on Facebook or twitter will exist forever someone out there so you really need to think about what you are posting since you can’t take it back. Many people shorted words when texting and those shorted words make their way into papers and school work. Many smart phones use auto correct when you type a message which can be helpful and annoying.

No standard model

There are a bunch of different ways to look at and define the word literate that the article talks about that we don’t always think it which I thought was interesting because we normally think of the word literate in one way. The part in the article where it talked about how college teachers should teach other teachers how writing should be done. I thought that this was a great idea but it is not happening for some reason. If this were to happen then the 5 paragraph model would not be a standard anymore and students would be able to be more creative when writing papers. Also teachers go through college to become teachers so why is it not being taught then?

The 5 paragraph model is the standard writing model in high schools because of the no child left behind act. This let more students pass end of grade tests and move on to the next grade level but this also lowered the expectations of most students and those students that are on a higher level are not challenged and the class just becomes an easy A for them which makes them go through school with high grades but as soon as they get to college everything falls apart because there is not standard for writing in college.

When we think of what annoys us when we read another persons essay, we move up to higher level then the person we are judging which is not fair but we still do it. Literacy is not something that randomly gives us power over another person based on the mistakes they make because we make mistakes too but that doesn’t stop us from saying we are better then that person. What I want to know is where did this habit that everyone has come from and why do we not stop it?